A-Z Index | Sterling Web Catalog HU Home
      Copyright & Reserves
         You are at: Home > Services > Course Reserves > Policy > Copyright



The library policy on reserve readings is derived from the fair use provisions of the United States Copyright Act of 1976. Section 107 of the Copyright Act expressly permits the making of multiple copies for classroom use.

Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified in that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship or research, is not an infringement of copyright.

In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include—

  • The purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes
  • the nature of the copyrighted work
  • the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and
  • the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.

The collections of the Howard University Libraries are purchased by the university for the nonprofit educational use of students and faculty. All library materials are acquired with the understanding that there will be multiple uses of a limited number of copies. The sole purpose of library reserves is to facilitate student access to readings for university classes.



  • will place material on reserve in print or digital format at the request of the instructor for the educational use of students
  • will purchase material that is placed on reserve if possible
  • will limit online access to HU faculty, students and staff
  • will not charge for reserve use
  • will place a copyright notice on photocopied works or on an intermediary screen for electronic reserve material
  • will remove access to reserve material after the class has ended


  • will determine if reserve readings are in compliance with fair use
  • will provide clean photocopies and/or citations for material to be placed on reserve
  • will make appropriate use of resources by ensuring that reserve material are necessary readings for students in the class

2003 Howard University. All rights reserved. Last updated: 25 May, 2003
HOWARD UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES, 500 Howard Place, NW, Washington, DC 20059 - (202) 806-7234
Questions? Comments? - WWW Disclaimer